Sanitation Research Center
Global goals (SGDs) envisage integrated effects of each of the 17 goals and encompassing everyone towards global peace and prosperity by the year 2030. Among the most critical goal in the Global South is water and sanitation captured in SDG 6. SDG 6.2 specifically seeks to achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations. This can be achieved by ensuring safely managed sanitation chain, which ensures protection of the health of individuals, communities and the environment. This however may not be attained because development in sanitation has been lagging in relation to urbanization and population growth in the global South. The little developments have focused on centralized systems that have been overwhelmed by population burst especially in the urban centres.
Cognisant to the role and inter-relatedness of sanitation many sectors of development, there is need for targeted sanitation interventions specific for unique context and scenarios especially across the developing world. This calls for information and evidence-based interventions to address sanitation challenges. The role of research and capacity building is critical across the various disciplines relating to sanitation provision and across the sanitation chain and ladder.
This calls for multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approach across Technical, Engineering, biological, Social, Economic and Cultural aspects among others to cover both the hard ware and software parts of sanitation. This guided the establishment of Sanitation Research centre at MUST.
To contribute to the University’s strategic educational and research activities with a view to embrace synergies between research, teaching and consultancy in sanitation.
A Centre of Excellence in Sanitation Research
This research Centre will address sanitation challenges through the following fields; Engineering, Microbiology, Chemistry, Waste and Waste Water, Public Health, Social Sciences.
- To build capacity in sanitation through education and training in sanitation related skills.
- To generate knowledge and technologies through collaborative and/or interdisciplinary research and innovation in sanitation.
- To transfer/disseminate and mobilize knowledge gained through research for the benefit of society
- To promote seamless flow of sanitation information between the University and the community through participatory outreach, extension and consultancy.
- To mobilize resource through research proposal writing, fund raising, grants etc towards inclusive sustainable sanitation.
SRC is housed in Meru University of Science and Technology as a centre dedicated to research in sanitation as part of the initiatives in line with the University vision of being a world class University of excellence in Science and Technology and the University mandate of Training, Research, Consultancy and Extension.
Meru University of Science and Technology (MUST), formally Meru University College of Science and Technology (MUCST) was established through a Legal Notice No. 103 of 18th July, 2008 as a Constituent College of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). It was thereafter awarded a charter on 1st of March 2013 by His Excellency Hon. Mwai Kibaki (Former President) attaining the status of a fully-fledged University. The University’s main campus is located in Nchiru, Meru County and along the Meru-Maua road. MUST has a Town Campus located at the Hart Towers in Meru Town and a learning centre located at Marimba-Meru.
MUST has continued to play a leading role in the development and expansion of opportunities for higher education and research in Agriculture & Food science, Engineering, Information Technology, Health, Water and Environmental Science in arid and semi-arid lands. MUST is now well-positioned to take a lead in the emerging national agenda as we seek to contribute positively to supporting education, innovation, technology transfer, and socio-economic development of our country. MUST emphasis on expanding opportunities in the STEM disciplines namely; Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics will greatly contribute to the achievement of the Kenya Vision 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Availabe Short Courses on Sanitaion
Feacal sludge management
Solid Waste Management
Resource Oriented Wastewater Treatment and Sanitation
Decentralised water supply and sanitation
Wash in Emergencies
Behaviour change and advocacy
Pit Emptying Technology
Urban Drainange and sewerage
Sanitation Systems and Services
Sanitation and Public Health
Analysis of sanitation flows
Experimental Methods in Waste Water Treatment
Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment
Partnership for Water Supply and Sanitation
At MUST, we challenge the sanitation dogma and thus lay the foundation for inquiry and innovations across the entire sanitation service chain cognizant of the role of hardware and software development in sanitation provision.
Sanitation dogma was born of the social cultural perceptions that have relegated it to a passive exercise whose end point is to get the excreta from the immediate vicinity with no follow up on its subsequent end point. The gold standard on the other hand is the use of water closet connected to a centralized treatment plant ‘sewer system’, available to a dismal population in the global south with lesser proportion of it being adequately treated.
MUST SRC constitutes a consortium of multidisciplinary researchers and academicians drawn from various schools (Engineering, Natural Sciences, Public Health and Social Sciences). The consortium works in partnership and collaborations with local and International Institutions and Organizations that are spearheading advances in sanitation. These include: Global Sanitation Graduate School (GSGS), International Water Association (IWA), Feacal Sludge Management Alliance (FSMA), Cranfield University, UK, Aston university, UK, University of Eldoret, Jomo kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Sanergy, Umande Trust, Sanivation, Kiyan limited and Kenya National Cleaner production Centre (KNCPC).
Towards its mandate, MUST SRC carries out various activities
We have a series of course/training programs; artisan, certificates, Diploma, undergraduate, MSc and PhD. These are co-taught through the competency-based approach in conjunction with the relevant industries, making the more practical and relevant
Research is organized into thematic areas from basic research, innovations, cutting edge research to cover the software and the hardware. Results thus obtained are availed as open source
Extension and outreach
Working in tandem with the line ministries, we offer advisory services to the community and its leaders in matters relating to sanitation.
The capacity and the expertise at the SRC engages with the policy makers and the industry through one on one consultancies to address sanitation challenges.
DR. EUNICE MARETE, Ph.D
DR. EUNICE MARETE, Ph.D
Dr. Eunice Marete holds a PhD. in Food Science from University College Dublin (Ireland), Master of Science in Chemistry, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) and Bachelor of Science in Chemistry, JKUAT. read more ...
DR. GUYO HUKA (Ph.D., MBA, ARM, B.Ed.), MKIM.
DR. GUYO HUKA (Ph.D., MBA, ARM, B.Ed.), MKIM.
Dr. Guyo Huka holds a Ph.D (Human Resource Management), MBA (Human Resource & Marketing Management), Advanced Research Methods Certificate and Bachelor of Education. read more ...
DR. SARAH WANDILI, Ph.D
DR. SARAH WANDILI, Ph.D
Dr Sarah holds a PhD in Cell and Molecular Biology from Maseno University, in research area molecular microbiology. She has a masters in Cell and Molecular Biology from the same institution. read more ...
DR. KENNEDY GACHOKA, Ph.D
DR. KENNEDY GACHOKA, Ph.D
Dr. Gachoka pursued his PhD in Animal Health and Sanitation (Animal Science – Entomology) from Federal University of Goias (Brazil) MSc in Entomology from University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana) read more ...
Ms. DOROTHY KAGENDO
Ms. DOROTHY KAGENDO
Ms. Dorothy Kagendo holds a Master of Science in Molecular Medicine from Jomo Kenyatta University (JKUAT) and a BSc. Medical Laboratory Sciences from Kenya Methodist University. read more ...
DR. EUSTACE MWENDA, Ph.D
DR. EUSTACE MWENDA, Ph.D
Dr. Eustace Mwenda PhD Applied Mathematics (Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology), MSc Applied Mathematics (Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology), read more ...
DR. JANE RUTTO, Ph.D
DR. JANE RUTTO, Ph.D
Dr. Jane Rutto holds a PhD in Environmental Health from Moi University, Kenya, MSc. Environmental Impact Assessment and Auditing, University of East Anglia, UK and BSc. Botany and Zoology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. read more ...
DR. SHANO MOHAMED, Ph.D
DR. SHANO MOHAMED, Ph.D
Dr. Shano Mohamed holds a PhD in finance, MBA in finance and B.Ed. (economics and business studies). He is also an accredited member of Certified Public Accountant of Kenya (CPA) read more ...
PROF. ERIC M. MUCHIRI, Ph.D
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Frequently Asked Questions
Got a question? We've got answers. If you have some other questions, feel free to contact us.
What is the feacal sludge management project about?
It is an on-site, non-sewer technology which is used to manage feacal waste through conversion of waste at a centralized facility into valuable end-products such as organic fertilizer and insect -based animal feed using the black soldier fly.
This project having garnered a lot of attention and won multiple awards, how can it be incorporated by the small-scale farmers or basic households?
Black Soldier Flies (BSF) have been singled out as a promising species which have the potential of reducing the cost of feeding to the farmers in terms of a source of protein. BSF are ideal bio-converters as they can convert waste products into larvae that can be used in aquaculture and livestock feed. Furthermore, the process of bioconversion using BSF is a very attractive option, considering that it represents a valuable solution to two problems: food waste management by generating value and closing nutrient loops on one hand and, on the other, the rising global demand for sustainable feed sources. Low-value waste streams can be turned into value-added, high-value proteins with co-products.
How safe are these products?
The process of bioconversion through BSF leads to a series of several end products which are Bio-fertilizer, fat and protein. The bio-fertilizer is a pure organic fertilizer free from microbial load which is rich in nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. The bio-fertilizer is a good soil conditioner with high water retention capacity. The larvae are harvested, dried and ground. They contain 38-45% protein content and 37% fat which are used as an alternative source of protein during animal feed formulation.
What challenges does this project face?
Stigmatization when it comes to handling of human waste and seeing waste as something useless with no value. We are changing the narrative through creating awareness about the importance of waste management to counter the negative perception that exists.
FSM project in support of the Government’s Big 4 Agenda
The use of BSF in feacal waste management is fully in line with the Government’s Big 4 agenda. In food security and nutrition, this innovation is very helpful since it is an alternative source of protein which can replace soybean and fish in animal feed production and hence the soybean and fish are used for human consumption thus increasing sources of protein. In addition, the BSF residue is composted producing a bio fertilizer rich in phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen which results in increased crop production. The compost has good cementing characteristics which are vital for soil stabilization. The innovation has greatly improved the universal health coverage within the society. This has been achieved through harnessing the ability of BSF to co-digest feacal waste, reduce its volume and microbial load. Thus, the end product is safe to reuse and dispose. Also, the cost of pit emptiers is unaffordable to most residents. Therefore, this technology has led to reduction in the use of pit latrines which reduces the rate of surface and groundwater pollution. This has greatly reduced the transmission of waterborne diseases within the area, therefore, creating a healthy society.
How does this process take place?
We manage food waste and vegetable waste generated within Meru University of Science and Technology (MUST) and feacal waste from Kunene primary school which neighbours MUST, where we have Urine Diverting Dehydrating Toilets (UDDT).
Treatment plant / Production area
This area contains several troughs which are housed in a well ventilated room for efficient air circulation. When waste arrives it is received, weighed, screened and scanned to remove non- biodegradable material and check presence of impurities which might harm the Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae. After screening and scanning has been done the waste is taken inside a well ventilated room and spread evenly onto the trough. Thereafter, five-day old BSF larvae are introduced into the waste and starts the conversion process which will take 10-14 days after which the harvesting is done to obtain bio fertilizer and protein.
This area contains several cages which are housed in a well incubated room with translucent roofing to allow natural light in to achieve the optimum condition for breeding of the black soldier fly. When the larvae pupate, they are taken to the nursery unit and placed inside a cage. The pupa will hatch into a fly. The major purpose of this fly is to lay eggs which will then hatch to larvae which are taken to the production area for waste digestion purposes.
Global Sanitation Graduate School
Module coordinators pose for a photograph with Dominic Kiogora , TOT(2nd right) during one of the training sessions
GSGS framework 2019
Master of Science in Sanitation
Master of Science in sanitation at Meru University of Science and Technology is part of Global Sanitation Graduate School (GSGS) framework 2019. The goals of GSGS is to share and exchange knowledge on citywide inclusive sanitation across the globe and reach thousands of sanitation professionals through the wide network of academic professional institutions, all towards achievement of Sustainable Development Goals.
In Kenya, the programme targets immediate sanitation needs for peri-urban, slum and rural dwellers with an aim to produce qualified sanitation specialists. It will also build capacity in postgraduate education in Sub-Saharan Africa with a view to achieve improved sanitation at the national, regional and global levels.Learn more
A holder of a Bachelor’s degree in Public Health, Community Health, Environmental Sciences, Microbiology, Biological Sciences, Chemistry/Biochemistry, Civil Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Agriculture, Health Sciences or any other relevant degree from an Institution recognized by Meru University of Science and Technology Senate.
ECS 7111: INTRODUCTION TO SANITATION
Background of Sanitation: sanitation coverage, global access, universal sanitation goals, the trend of urbanization, urban sanitation situation, challenges emerging from rural-urban interaction.
Sanitation Environments: Sanitation ladder in various environments (rural, urban, slums, refugee and IDP camps): open defecation, unimproved facilities, shared facilities, improved facilities. Discussion of individual’s local sanitation environment sharing experiences from various regions.
Management of sanitation issues: Excreta management (faeces, urine), drainage for rainwater/storm water). Disposal methods: containment, conveyance, treatment and end use of disposal. The material flow analysis (MFA); assessment of sanitation systems, environmental impacts, system analysis. Sanitation Monitoring: National sanitation access, Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS), Elimination of open defecation (OD), Disposal of children’s faeces, Hand washing with soap (HWWS). Fecal/Shit Waste Flow Diagram Approach.
ECS 7112: SANITATION SYSTEMS AND SERVICES
Urbanization, basic urban services and systems approach: Urban development trends, demography; factors driving urbanization and how this affects urban development in development country contexts (Growth, Socio-spatial disparities, Low-income and informal settlements, dynamics of urban development (city and Town Planning). Service delivery chain; Importance of service delivery chains, the enabling environment, why service chains fail. Compendium; Introduction to the compendium, main parts of the document & its utility, introduction to the five functional groups and the different sanitation products, using the Compendium to plan a complete sanitation system, On-line demonstration of the eCompendium & glossary of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, key sanitation sector document, application to the sanitation systems approach.
Systems and technologies: Urban Sanitation Case Studies. Analysis of the most appropriate systems and technologies in different urban and peri-urban contexts.
Urban service delivery: Case studies of successful and failed urban sanitation projects, key success factors, why certain projects have failed. Examples (Ordos Nala, Nepal, Durban, South Africa, Orangi Pilot Project, Pakistan, Sector innovations: Soil (Haiti), Sanivation (East Africa), FSM in Dakar.
Urban sanitation planning approaches: Urban sanitation planning & programming, why planning & programming is important for achieving 100% sanitation coverage; master planning critique, rapid diagnostics for city wide analysis, how sanitation fits in urban planning, weaknesses of master planning, overcoming the disconnection between urban planning and the sanitation sector. Planning approaches; differentiate between existing urban sanitation planning approaches - Sanitation 21, Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning (CLUES), Service Delivery Assessment (SDA).
Diagnostic tools in urban sanitation projects and programmes: Utility of using different diagnostic tools, types of decision support systems, categories and application (Sanitation 21, CLUES, Saniplan, Strategic Sanitation Planning, FSM tools for sustainable service delivery, etc). Diagnostic tools (GIS/mapping; surveys; shit flow diagrams (SFDs); service level analysis.
Formative research: Formative research/diagnostic work, undertaking formative research a given context. A review of methods for undertaking formative/diagnostic research in low-income urban settings, Example: Eawag’s FSM video on Lusaka in Zambia. Stakeholder analysis in urban settings. Stakeholder analysis. Formulating SMART questions.
ECS 7113: PUBLIC HEALTH AND SANITATION
Introduction to public health: The work of John Snow and the relationship between public health and sanitation.
Human Health Hazards and Waste: Introduction to the concept of hazards and risk, what types of risks exist and how they are classified, what is a public health risk. Types of wastes generated and their associated hazards, classification of waste and how wastes are defined, hazardous caused by different types of wastes.
Disease associated with human waste. Pathogens; their important, different types of organisms that cause diseases focusing on sanitation. Factors in excreta related disease transmission, Concepts; Excreted load, latency, persistence, intermediate hosts, alternative hosts, multiplication, infectivity, susceptibility of hosts.
Transmission routes: Classification of environmental transmitted diseases in relation to sanitation; Bradley classification, Water/Excreta related, Faecal-oral using the F-diagram. Disease Cycles – Lifecycles & Vectors, lifecycles of pathogens related to sanitation and how this affects control mechanisms, factors related to disease transmission. Adverse nutritional and anthropometric outcomes related to sanitation. Review of global and national disease burdens of sanitation related diseases. Review of other neglected tropical diseases related to sanitation. Noninfectious public health issues linked to sanitation
Control Measures: Non-technical principles of control which are related to lifecycles. Current outbreaks via case studies i.e. Cholera in Yamen, Hep A in USA.
Risk Evaluation Tools: A review of the tools and how they are related, when and why you would use specific tools. Sanitary surveys and how to use them. Sanitation Safety Planning – workshop using a case study on how to develop one. Case study on the use of Sanipath. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA).
ECS 7114: ANALYSIS OF SANITATION FLOWS
Compare the characteristics of different sanitation streams and assess their potential pollution and health impacts: Classification of waste types, Wet waste streams and typical characteristics, Typical sanitation streams and their characteristics, Why the characteristics vary from stream to stream, Potential pollutions issues association with sanitation streams, Potential public health issues associated with sanitation streams, Review sanitations streams as a raw material and potential products. Evaluate the legislation in relation to these sanitation streams; Review current legislation in relation to sanitation streams via reviewing Shit Flow Diagrams. Evaluate the results gained from laboratory test of to identify samples taken from various sanitation streams; Laboratory induction, Analysis of sanitation streams; parameters tested should include chemical, physical and biological. Assess the results gained for compliance to legislation; Current legislation.
ECS 7115: SANITATION TECHNOLOGY
Urban drainage and sewerage: Urban Drainage and Sewerage.
Technologies for the sewage and sludge treatment: Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal & recovery; sludge treatment.
Sanitation chain components: toilet interface; storage; transport; treatment; end use or disposal. Site evaluation; toilets; onsite sanitation systems; emptying and transport; established and transferring technologies for dewatering, stabilization, pathogen inactivation and nutrient management, urban low cost drainage. Workshop and group design.
Innovations in sanitation: Innovation processes; RTTC, eSoS exercise. Critical assessment of innovations.
Sanitation decision support tools: carry out a decision support analysis. Intro & Exercise technology selection tool / decision support system; Critical assessment and discussion of outcomes of decision support tools.
ECS 7121: SANITATION GOVERNANCE
Explain main approaches and theories on water and sanitation; Water & sanitation governance: definitions, debates, controversies, the policy making process. Identify actors and decision-making processes related to sanitation governance; Power relations among actors in the local and global levels: Gender, class & race relations and power asymmetries, Practices of coordination & decision, making around contested water distribution. Explain the advantages and shortcomings of sanitation regulatory frameworks in countries of the Global South; Contextualizing sanitation: the politics of urban waste, Formal and informal regulation, regulatory impact assessment. Analyze sanitation governance structures from specific study cases, including integration of policies and strategies into government planning and budgeting systems; contextualize sanitation, understand the politics of urban waste, and be in a position to understand sanitation governance surrounding sanitation issues both locally and globally. Case studies on regulatory frameworks around the world– how is sanitation managed: where, how and why, Everyday sanitation from different perspectives. Contrast failures, successes, and journeys of sanitation histories around the world; Sanitation history. What does history have to do with all this?:Sanitation in Europe main cities, Sanitation in colonial contexts, Evaluate elements for developing evidence based policies; Shifting sanitation governance in light of justice concerns, Governance alternatives amongst the “crisis of imagination”.
ECS 7122: SANITATION FINANCING
Overview of sanitation financing and impact of service financing: National context:
Decentralization and Local Authority Finances. Innovative Financing for Sanitation. Saniplan Tool - financing model.
Sustainability and business models in sanitation: Sanitation service and value chain, sustainability in sanitation. Business models in sanitation. Financial flow in business model. Business canvas. Public Private Partnership (PPP) in sanitation.
FSM Technical and Financial Assessment Tool: Use FSM Technical and Financial Assessment Tool for costing and financing of a sanitation project
ECS 7123: BEHAVIOR CHANGE & ADVOCACY
Appreciate the importance of behavior change and advocacy in sanitation planning and delivery: Sanitation & behavior change (BC); Defining behavior across the sanitation chain & the importance of BC in urban sanitation programming, What is behavior?;
- Behavior science concepts: behaviors vs habits & drivers vs reinforcements
- behaviors & sanitation programming
- Key BC actors: roles & responsibilities, What is advocacy?; Promoting change via persuasion & policy vs education/awareness raising.
Discuss the concepts underpinning behavior change and advocacy (BC&A) interventions:
Behavior change frameworks; what is a theory of change?, Behavior change frameworks:
- What is a theory of change?
- Conceptual models (BCD, COM-B, IBM-WASH, CLTS, nudging, RANAS) & tools (Willingness-to-pay & marketing - SaniFOAM & DIP IN) BC channels.
Demonstrate an awareness of models, methods and tools that promote change in a diverse range of target populations and contexts: BC&A formative research:
- BC intervention process & prioritisation
- Embedding BC interventions
- What is formative research & why it's needed
Case example applications: In-class exercises & discussions over hypothetical BC TOC/methods selection, implementation and evaluation of real-life case, Monitoring behavioral change:
- whether/how it occurred
- strategy (inc. objs)
TOC validity, Tracking change :
- Planning - indicators, information and costs
- Data sources & collection tools
- Challenges, Occupational Health & Safety Protocols
Significance & case examples, Advocacy & public policy:
- Linking behaviors to public policy & administration
- Case examples, Advocacy & media: Media & social media case examples
ECS 7124: WASH IN EMERGENCIES
Description of humanitarian aid: history, key elements of the legal context and key sectors of humanitarian assistance, and apply humanitarian principles and work within the framework and coordination of humanitarian assistance; The evolution of humanitarian aid: historical events and the humanitarian system as it stands today, Overview of the international legal framework (Refugee law, International Humanitarian Law-IHL, International Disaster Relief Law-IDRL), code of conduct and guiding principles of humanitarian action, Standards applied by relief agencies and global cluster, Sphere, WASH cluster.
Describe the stages of humanitarian aid and recognize the main actors of the international relief system and their respective mandates; Disaster cycle, risk reduction/ response/ recovery/ development, emergency response phases, Overview of relief organizations, their mandates, their commitments and priorities in emergencies.
Explain the key environmental sanitation needs and approaches common in emergency situations; Options for the provision safe excreta disposal, solid waste management, vector control and surface water drainage.
Compare the suitability of different technical options depending on the phase of emergency and variety of practical settings, adjusting to time and resources available; An example about humanitarian organizations adapting their practices (and responses) to the local context (local resources, local practices, etc.)
To implement a specific sanitation solution; applied approaches bringing theory into practice (good and bad experiences, lessons learnt),
Plan, implement and monitor a sanitation response to a disaster situation; Development of a sanitation plan for a specific situation including budgeting (contingency planning, acquisition, management, use of information for decision making, monitoring and reporting)
Integrate and apply the theory in a case scenario; Different stakeholders in a humanitarian emergency context.
ECS 7125: LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT IN SANITATION
Discuss the concepts of leader, leadership, and management: Leading and Managing; An introduction to leadership concepts; The difference between a leader and leadership; Competencies relevant for establishing an enabling leadership environment; Inter- vs intra-development, management vs leadership, inter-cultural leadership and competencies of a leader Leading in intercultural settings. Articulate their vision through a strategic plan based on Theory of Change: Establishing a vision and a strategy; How to develop a vision and translate it into a plan; Introduction to the concept of a sanitation vision, supported with Change Management and Theory of Change frameworks to develop a strategy for translating the vision into actions on the ground; Choose from various communication skills in order to effectively lead a team; Effective communication for leadership; Building and maintaining trust; Active listening; Giving and receiving feedback; Consensus building; Conflict Management; Negotiation Reflect on their current and desired capacity as leaders, in terms of personal and situational awareness; Emotional Intelligence; Self-reflection and the way forward; Participants will carry out self assessment in order to prepare an individual leadership development plan based on their strengths, weaknesses and desired future goals. Identify conflicts in sanitation management and their solutions; Introduction to working in groups. Identify change agent in evaluation processes.
ECS 7126: PROJECT PLANNING & MANAGEMENT
Explain project management cycle and key elements of project planning; Project management cycle; Key elements of project planning: Apply standard tool(s) for context, stakeholder and problem analysis to plan a sanitation project/proposal; Introduction to case study and group assignment; Context analysis; Stakeholder analysis; Problem analysis: Apply Theory of change approach to develop a sanitation project/proposal; Results-based Project Management; Theory of Change - Map Conditions; Theory of Change - select a path of change; Theory of Change - Assumptions and justifications; Options Analyses, Multi-Criteria Analyses; Stakeholder management; Risk assessment and mitigation; Finalise project plan; Good practices and criteria for good project proposals: Organise and develop project implementation plan; Project plan to implementation plan; Recap/Transfer Exercise of previouslydeveloped project plan; Task Planning and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS); Resource disposition – make-or-buy, tendering, hiring, contracting; Project Human Resources: Organise and develop project monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) plan21. Monitoring, evaluation and learning (MEL) frameworks; Monitoring for Results vs Implementation; Indicators for validation of results/impact; Indicators for project implementation and operation; Use MS Project for developing a sanitation project plan; Project Planning Software; Overview and use of MS project on project management/implementation; MS Project; Introduction to software and MS Project; Demonstrate and work with MS Project; Demonstrate and work with project tasks and linking tasks; Assigning resources and costs for a project; Creating project timeline, milestones, summary task and sub task; Demonstrate and work with project tracking.
ECS 7127: TEAMWORK SKILLS DEVELOPMENT
Description of personality with respect to group work and their preferred role within a Team; determinant of personality, selected theories of personality, personality, and occupations
Introduction to working in groups. Group dynamics – formations, functions. Composition of Groups of varying in sizes and composition; group working models
Carry out various group works over the regular content modules and reflect on their own performance; Handle conflicts, evaluate processes and resolve impasses in the progress; Write a portfolio on the personal development during the various group works. Group exercises
ECS 7131 RESEARCH METHODS FOR SANITATION
Evaluate different types experimental design and sampling strategies in relation to the individual research project; World philosophical views; Research design/methodologies; Classification of research designs; Sampling strategies; Methods - the advantages, disadvantages when they are appropriate; Methods which may be included in the social science stream: Participant Observation , Interviews , Focus Group Discussion, Media Analysis, Survey and Questionnaire Participatory Methods ; Methods which may be included in the science stream: Ascaris Analysis, Calorific Value, Viscosity, DNA extraction and Analysis: Evaluate the research methods in relation to the individual research project; Stream A; Dewatering; Anaerobic; Vermi-filters; Compost analysis; Analysis of products; Stream B: Participant Observation; Interviews; Focus Group Discussion; Media Analysis; Survey and Questionnaire Participatory Methods; Feminist Research. Classification of Research Methods -Science,
Engineering and Social Science; Qualitative vs Quantitative; Examples of types of methods; Advantages and disadvantages of methods; Mixed methods approaches-the debate; Triangulation of data: Ethics and consent; What is good practice; Avoidance of data mining/stripping; Causing no harm; Returning knowledge back to stakeholders.
Research Process; Defining a research problem, review of literature including concept and theories, principles and models related to the problem and review of previous research findings. Formulation of research questions, objectives, Hypothesis, Operational definition of terms, variables, limitations, delimitations and assumption in research study, selection of research design, determination of sampling methods of the target population, development of a research protocol, designing data collection instruments, Data collection and management of data analysis methods,interpretation of findings, evaluating research results and drawing conclusions and recommendations; Ethical considerations: Ethical principles, the power of research, informed consent, ethics and legal requirements in research. Development and writing a Thesis,: Major Components of a Thesis and the format of writing, characteristics of a quality Thesis, Presentation skills: oral presentation skills using illustrative material, handling discussions and questions, guidelines for trial oral presentations, guidelines for effective visuals, Poster presentations: guidelines for poster presentations, handling the poster presentation session.
ECS 7132: ADVANCED RESEARCH STATISTICS
Statistic terms: Introduction to Statistics; Statistical thinking; Importance of statistics in research, planning, predicting, forecasting, interpreting, and problem solving: control;; Hypothesis testing methods; Differentiate between an hypothesis and research questions; Descriptive and inferential statistics, Objectives and significance of undertaking Research; Solution to a problem, creation of knowledge, policy development, testing of theories, determination of relevance and applicability of models and approaches in decision making, establishment of relationships and seeking answers to problems: Research Types: Descriptive versus analytical, applies versus fundamental, Quantitive versus Qualitative, conceptual versus empirical, longitudinal research, clinical or diagnostic research and historical research: Statistical Methods: Scope of statistics: Purpose and importance of statics; Descriptive statistics: Measures of central tendency, measures of variation, tabulation and data processing; tabular and graphical methods; Probability: the meaning of probability, probability calculations and distributions, Subjective probability, Sampling error of the mean, proportion, variance, difference; Statistical inferences: Parametric and non-parametric tests, Significance tests and confidence levels, Inferences from means, comparison of two means, inferences from variance, comparison of two proportions, 2X2 tables and chi square tests, inferences from two counts, comparison of two counts, regression and correlation, comparison of multiple groups, multiple measurements. Statistical Computation: Data processing, Statistical analysis, statistical software programs (Excel, SPSS, Nvivo).
To implement the Master of Science in sanitation, Meru University of Science and Technology has partnered with various institutions both public and private to provide the required expertise and supervision. Some of these institutions are;
- Meru County Government
- Ministry of water and sanitation
- Umande Trust
Teaching Facilities and infrastructure
To support the programme the University has the following facilities
- Innovation and Entrepreneurship Centre
- Sanitation Research Centre
- Well-equipped library
- Teaching rooms and faculty offices
- Sanitation Research laboratory
- Biological laboratory
- Animal Health laboratory
- Agriculture laboratory
- Chemistry laboratory
- Physics laboratory
- Microbiology and Pathology laboratory
- Molecular science laboratory
- Biochemistry laboratory
- Computer science laboratory
- Sheet metal workshop
- Welding workshop
- Material testing
- Solid and Structural mechanics
- Fluid mechanics
- Black Soldier Fly adult and production units
- Toilet complex at Kunene primary School